Research publications


PDF downloads available by clicking on titles that link to Simon Pittman’s Research Gate site.

Connectivity and Movement Ecology

We review the movement patterns of fish and decapod crustaceans with special attention to scale and the limitations of the conventional single approach which can lead to a scale mismatch in studies of mobile organisms. We propose a hierarchical conceptual framework and we offer a new definition of ‘habitat’ from an organism-based perspective and review the tools for measuring and mapping in movement ecology.

Simon J Pittman, Clive A. McAlpine

We examine the application of landscape ecology to understand ecological connectivity in tropical marine ecosystems by exploring landscape ecology concepts, methods and tools available for evaluating connectivity, examining data needs and obstacles, and reviewing lessons learned from terrestrial landscape ecology.

Grober-Dunsmore, Simon J Pittman, Chris Caldow, Matthew S Kendall, Thomas K Frazer

The information on direction of fish movement together with analysis of prey data provided strong evidence of ecological linkages between distinct adjacent habitat types and highlighted the need for greater inclusion of a mosaic of multiple habitats when attempting to understand ecosystem function including the spatial transfer of energy across the seascape.

Randall D. Clark, Simon J Pittman, Chris Caldow, John Christensen, Bryant Roque, Richard S Appeldoorn, Mark E Monaco

We coupled manual hydro-acoustic technology to track fish together with seafloor mapping and pattern analysis techniques from landscape ecology to quantify seascape structure within the day and night activity spaces.

Steven Hitt, Simon J Pittman, Richard S Nemeth

We used manual acoustic telemetry to track the detailed daily movements (24 h) of several bluestriped grunts and schoolmaster snappers. Movement pathways and day and night activity spaces were mapped and quantified in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Directional sun-synchronous migrations occurred close to astronomical sunset and sunrise. Night activity spaces were larger than daytime activity spaces.

Steven Hitt, Simon J Pittman, Kerry A Brown

Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements?

Simon J. Pittman, Mark E. Monaco, Alan M. Friedlander, Bryan Legare, Richard S. Nemeth, Matthew S. Kendall, Matthew Poti, Randall D. Clark, Lisa M. Wedding, Chris Caldow

The objective of the study was to define the movements of reef fishes among habitats within and between the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM), the Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS), and Territorial waters surrounding St. John.

Alan M. Friedlander, Mark E. Monaco, Randy Clark, Simon J. Pittman, Jim Beets, Rafe Boulon, Russell Callender, John Christensen, Sarah D. Hile, Matt S. Kendall, Jeff Miller, Caroline Rogers, Kosta Stamoulis, Lisa Wedding, and Kimberly Roberson.

Connectivity structures populations, communities and ecosystems in the sea. The extent of connectivity is, therefore, predicted to also influence the outcomes of conservation initiatives, such as marine reserves. Here we review the published evidence about how important seascape connectivity (i.e. landscape connectivity in the sea) is for marine conservation outcomes.

Andrew D. Olds, Rod M. Connolly, Kylie A. Pitt, Simon J. Pittman, Paul S. Maxwell, Chantal M. Huijbers, Brad R. Moore, Simon Albert, David Rissik, Russell C. Babcock, Thomas A. Schlacher

The relationship between environmental patterning in the marine environment and the movements of organisms is central to our understanding of ecological structure, function and dynamics.

Simon J. Pittman, Benjamin Davis and Rolando O. Santos-Corujo

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Our study focused on small-scale patterns of movement and habitat use of juvenile tarpon using acoustic telemetry in a small bay in St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands.

Mareike Romero, Jordan Matley, Jiangang Luo, Jerry Ault, Simon J. Pittman and Rick Nemeth


We build here on the Ocean City concept with recognition of human cultural and well being connections to the ocean and examples of blue urban interventions that can progress a healthier relationship between coastal cities and the ocean for people and planet. 

Simon J. Pittman, Emma Sheehan, Thomas Stamp, Luke Holmes and Adam Rees

Seascape Composition & Configuration

To test alternative hypotheses of linkages between marine fish and prawns and the surrounding landscape structure in Moreton Bay, Queensland (Australia), we quantified substratum structure at three spatial scales: (1) whole landscape mosaic (10s of hectares); (2) habitat type (benthic class) (100s m2 to hectares) and (3) within-patch scale (cm2 to m2). 

Simon J Pittman, Clive McAlpine, Karyn M Pittman

This study develops an exploratory seascape approach using the geographical location of mangroves and the structure of the surrounding seascape at multiple spatial scales to explain the spatial patterns in fish density and number of species observed within mangroves of SW Puerto Rico. 

Simon J Pittman, Chris Caldow, Sarah D Hile, Mark E Monaco

A multi-scale seascape approach derived from landscape ecology was applied to quantify and examine the explanatory roles of a wide range of variables at different spatial scales. Statistical learning techniques using single classification and regression trees (CART) and ensembles of boosted regression trees (TreeNet) were used to model interactions and identify the most influential environmental predictors.

Linn Sekund, Simon J Pittman

To evaluate the influence of map resolution, seascape variables were calculated based on four separate benthic maps produced using two levels of spatial and thematic resolution. Use of different input maps changed the scale at which strongest correlations in fish-seascape associations were detected.  

Matthew S Kendall, Thomas J Miller, Simon J Pittman

We evaluated the utility and application of spatial pattern metrics in marine science (1980 to 2010). In total, 23 studies characterized seascape structure, of which 17 quantified spatial patterns using a two-dimensional patch-mosaic model and five used a continuously varying three-dimensional surface model. 

Lisa M Wedding, Christopher A Lepczyk, Simon J Pittman, Alan M Friedlander, Stacy Jorgensen

Using habitat mapping from aerial photography spanning 71 years (1938–2009) for Biscayne Bay (Florida, USA), we quantify submerged aquatic vegetation habitat loss and fragmentation using a novel fragmentation index. Spatial changes are greater close to shore and canals.

Rolando O Santos, Diego Lirman, Simon J Pittman

To understand the ecological consequences of the freshwater-induced SAV seascape fragmentation, fish and crustaceans were sampled using seine nets across seascapes with continuous and highly fragmented SAV spatial configurations and across salinity regimes. Fragmented SAV seascapes supported significantly higher species diversity of fish and crustaceans, especially in areas influenced by freshwater discharges.

Rolando O. Santos, Diego Lirman, Simon J. Pittman & Joseph E. Serafy

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Terrain complexity & predictive mapping

We combined empirical modelling techniques, remotely sensed data, field observations and GIS to develop a novel multi-scale approach for predicting fish species richness across a compositionally and topographically complex mosaic of marine habitat types in the U.S. Caribbean. Overall, regression trees outperformed multiple linear regression and neural networks.

Simon J Pittman, John D Christensen, Chris Caldow, Charles Menza, Mark E Monaco

We developed a multi-scale approach using three-dimensional seafloor morphology and across-shelf location to predict spatial distributions for five common Caribbean fish species. Seascape topography was quantified from high resolution bathymetry at five spatial scales (5-300 m radii) surrounding fish survey sites. MaxEnt spatial predictions were markedly more accurate (92% map accuracy) than boosted regression tree models (68% map accuracy).

Simon J Pittman, Kerry A Brown

To assess the utility of LiDAR-derived bathymetry data as a predictor of fish and coral diversity and abundance, seven different morphometrics were applied to a 4 m resolution seafloor terrain model at multiple spatial scales (i.e., 15, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 m radii) using a circular moving window analysis. Predictive models for 19 fish metrics and two coral metrics were developed using stochastic gradient boosting applied to regression trees.

Simon J Pittman, Bryan Costa, Tim A Battista

Predictive Mapping of Coral Reef Fish Species and Communities

This book chapter reviews the history of predictive mapping applied to coral reef ecosystems and describes the different models for representing seascape structure followed by an explanation of the multi-scale and multi-algorithm approach supported by several coral reef case studies. Ideas for future research are presented.

Simon J Pittman, Anders Knudby

Acoustic sensors (splitbeam and multibeam echosounders) were used to concurrently map and quantify the location, density and size of reef fish along with seafloor structure in two, separate locations in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Fish size-class distributions were predictively mapped using boosted regression trees. Water depth and standard deviation of depth were the most influential predictors at two spatial scales (100 and 300 m).

Bryan Costa, J Chistopher Taylor, Laura Kracker, Tim Battista, Simon Pittman

We use “reef flattening” scenarios and spatial predictive modeling to demonstrate how declining seascape complexity will lead to contractions and fragmentation in the local spatial distribution of fish. This change may result in impaired connectivity, cascading impacts to ecological functioning and reduced resilience to environmental stressors.

Simon J Pittman, Bryan Costa, Christopher FG Jeffrey, Chris Caldow

This book chapter reviews LiDAR applications to coral reefs providing several case studies that highlight the application to navigational charting, engineering, benthic habitat mapping, ecological modeling, marine geology and environmental change detection. The future directions of LiDAR applications are considered.

Simon J Pittman, Bryan Costa, Lisa Wedding

We evaluated the performance and cost effectiveness of LiDAR and multibeam systems for providing benthic habitat maps. LiDAR cost 6.6% less than MBES and required 40 fewer hours to map the same study area. MBES provided more detail about the seafloor by fully ensonifying high-relief features, by differentiating between fine and coarse sediments. Surface fractal dimensions and Fast Fourier transformations emerged as useful methods for detecting artifacts in the datasets.

Bryan Costa, Tim A Battista, Simon J Pittman

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In this review article we focus on high-resolution 3D structure, using terrestrial and marine examples to illustrate how state-of-the-art advances in landscape ecology achieved through novel data fusion, spatial analysis, and geovisualization of environmental data can provide new ecological insights. These examples provide a look to the future in landscape and seascape ecology, where continued progress toward a multidimensional science will fundamentally shift the way we view, explore, and conceptualize the world

Chris Lepczyk, Lisa Wedding, Greg Asner, Simon J. Pittman, Tristan Goulden, Marc Linderman, Jeanne Gang and Rosalie Wright

Hayden P. Borland, Ben L. Gilby, Christopher J. Henderson, Javier X. Leon, Thomas A. Schlacher, Rod M. Connolly, Simon J. Pittman, Marcus Sheaves and Andrew D. Olds

Marine Policy & Decision Support Tools

Bridging the Divide: Social–ecological Coherence in Marine Protected Area Network Design

The application of MPA network design principles (e.g. Representative, ecological connectivity), which underpin ecological coherence, is still lacking or insufficient in many regions. We present four pivotal focus points for future progress that can bridge the gap between ecological and social systems. The aim is to shift the discourse of ‘ecological coherence’ further into the social sphere to support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to achieve social–ecological coherence in MPA networ

Sian Rees, Simon J Pittman, Nicola Foster, Olivia Langmead, Charly Griffiths, Steve Fletcher, David Johnson, Martin Attrill

We developed a set of fishing effort and habitat layers at high resolution and employed machine learning techniques to create regional-scale seascape models and predictive maps of biomass and body length of targeted reef fishes for the main Hawaiian Islands. By comparing current targeted fish distributions with those predicted when fishing effort was removed, areas with high recovery potential on each island were revealed.

Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Jade MS Delevaux, Ivor D Williams, Matthew
Poti, Joey Lecky, Bryan Costa, Matthew S Kendall, Simon J Pittman, Mary K Donovan, Lisa M
Wedding, Alan M Friedlander

The Biogeograpic Assessment Framework provides a rapid, flexible and multi-disciplinary approach to integrate geospatial information into formats and visualization tools readily useable for spatial planning. Central to BAF is four sequential components: (1) Planning; (2) Data Evaluation; (3) Ecosystem Characterization; and (4) Management Applications.

Chris Caldow, Mark E Monaco, Simon J Pittman, Matthew Kendall, Theresa L Goedeke, Charles Menza, Brian P Kinlan, Bryan M Costa

To meet multiple conservation objectives, a novel map-based decision-support tool was designed which synthesized large amounts of data to help managers identify and rank coral reefs according to multiple ecological qualities, ecosystem services and threats. The spatial framework integrates local expert knowledge from SCUBA divers, scientific field data and spatial models to characterize and rank priority coral reefs.

Simon J Pittman, Matthew Poti, Christopher FG Jeffrey, Laura M Kracker, Ayman Mabrouk

This chapter provides a wide range of classifications and classified maps developed to simplify and communicate biological, physical, social, and economic patterns in support of enhanced management decision making. Examples are provided from around the world and span a range of spatial scales from global classifications to those for individual bays and estuaries.

Simon J Pittman, David W Connor, Lynda Radke, Dawn J Wright

This paper presents current knowledge and implementation of the qualitative elements of Aichi Target 11 and highlights gaps in knowledge. We conclude that the progress made so far on describing and implementing the qualitative goals of Aichi Target 11 should be integrated into SDG 14 in order to strengthen global efforts for marine biodiversity conservation.

Siân E. Rees, Nicola L. Foster, Olivia Langmead, Simon Pittman, David E. Johnson

This report from a NOAA coordinated meeting documents clarify the concept from the ecologicl perspecitve and its application to ecosystem management and highlights progress made on resilence-focused projects funded by NOAA.

Jeff Maynard, Brit Parker, Roger Beeden, Jerker Tamelander, Petra McGowan, Lew Gramer, Scott Heron, Matt Kendall, Steve McKagan, Elizabeth McLeod, Kirsten Oleson, Simon Pittman

We provide a series of evidenced-based arguments that support an urgent need to recognize fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) as a focal point for fisheries management and conservation on a global scale, with a particular emphasis placed on the protection of multispecies FSA sites.

Brad Erisman, William Heyman, Shinichi Kobara, Tal Ezer, Simon Pittman, Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, Richard S Nemeth​

This review synthesizes the latest advances in the study of transient fish spawning aggregations in the wider Caribbean to (1) illustrate the current state of knowledge; (2) highlight gaps in our understand-ing of the geography and ecology of aggregation sites; and (3) suggest future research needs and conservation strategies.

Shin Kobara, William Heyman, Simon J Pittman, Richard S Nemeth

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Effects of terrain on fish assemblages have been reported from most ecosystems, but it is unclear whether bathymetric effects vary among seascapes or change in response to seafloor modification by humans. We reviewed the global literature linking seafloor terrain to fish species and assemblages (96 studies) and determined that relief (e.g. depth), complexity (e.g. roughness), feature classes (e.g. substrate types) and morphology (e.g. curvature), have widespread effects on fish assemblages.

Seascape Ecology & Systems Science

Seascape Ecology provides a comprehensive look at the state–of–the–science in the application of landscape. It presents the principles, concepts, methodology, and techniques informing seascape ecology and reports on the latest developments in the application of the approach to marine ecology and management.

Simon J Pittman (ed.) 

This introductory chapter to the book Seascape Ecology documents the rise and origins of seascape ecology and some of the key concepts and principles in seascape ecology.

Simon J Pittman

To better understand and manage the coasts and oceans for ecological and social outcomes a conceptual and operational framework is urgently needed that will integrate appropriate ecological realism within a holistic and multi-scale social-ecological systems approach. This chapter outlines some key conceptual considerations for the advancement and future development of a holistic transdisciplinary approach for seascape ecology.

Simon J. Pittman, Chris A. Lepczyk, Lisa M.Wedding, Camille Parrain

Here we present some thoughts on the emergence of seascape ecology from the perspective of leading ecologists who have been working at the forefront of modern terrestrial ecology.

Simon J Pittman, John A Wiens, Jianguo Wu, Dean Urban

This chapter reviews the evolution of seascape dynamics and fragmentation theory through a review of existing studies. Methods for quantifying and investigating dynamic spatial patterning and fragmentation are examined with illustrated examples

Emma L Jackson, Rolando O Santos, Simon J Pittman

The 7 contributions in this Theme Section collectively provide substantial insights into the current status and application of the landscape approach in shallow marine environments, and identify significant knowledge gaps, as well as potential directions for the future advancement of seascape ecology.

Simon J Pittman, Ron T Kneib, Charles A Simenstad 

This chapter provides a rationale for adopting a seascape ecology perspective for the ecological study of fishes on coral reefs. It describes key concepts central to the implementation of seascape studies, such as how seafloor spatial structure is represented, the ecological significance of mosaics and terrains, and the importance of connectivity and corridors in ecology and marine ecosystem-based management.

Simon J. Pittman, Andrew D Olds

We review the progress made in the emerging field of coastal seascape ecology with a focus on faunal responses to patch and seascape structure, including effects of fragmentation on 5 focal habitats: seagrass meadows, salt marshes, coral reefs, mangrove forests, and oyster reefs.

Christoffer Boström, Simon J Pittman, Charles Simenstad, Ronald T Kneib

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We present the most important applied research questions for seascape ecology as determined by academic scientists and ranked by both academics and practitioners. For each theme, we provide a synthesis of the research challenges and the potential role of seascape ecology. These priority questions and themes serve as a roadmap for advancing applied seascape ecology during, and beyond, the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021−2030).

Simon J. Pittman & 37 co-authors

Linking Landscapes & Seascapes

In this chapter, we explore how landscape ecology concepts and techniques can improve our understanding of how patterning on land affects seascapes. We use case studies in tropical coastal systems to illustrate science gaps, available spatially explicit tools, and the implications for management. Priority areas for future research are provided to guide the next steps in this rapidly emerging area of applied interdisciplinary seascape ecology

Kirsten Oleson, Kim A. Falinski, Donna-marie Audas, Samantha Coccia-Schillo, Paul Groves Lida Teneva and Simon J. Pittman

This chapter provides an overview of methods for collecting, storing, and evaluating existing and new spatial and temporal data on human use patterns across the seascape. Real world examples, primarily from studies of fisheries, are presented. Development of spatially-explicit bioeconomic models is encouraged as a way to test the consequences of different spatial configurations on the costs and benefits of different management measures.

Steven Saul, Simon J Pittman

This report provides a detailed spatial characterization of landscape and adjacent seascape condition within the St. Croix East End Marine Park. This characterization is presented to highlight the potential influence of landscape patterns on nearshore coral reef ecosystems and to document the diversity, condition and composition of biological communities within each of the distinct park zones.

Simon J. Pittman, Dan Dorfman, Sarah D. Hile, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Michael A. Edwards, Chris Caldow

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Human Impacts in the Ocean

Maps indicating all locations sampled, a detailed table of data sources and sites surveyed, timelines of ecologically important events, and relevant references. Each of these reports was compiled in consultation with local experts and all those who provided data and advice are listed as authors of each country report.

Appeldoorn R, Armstrong R, Atkinson A, Beets J, Bythell J, Caldow C, Edmunds P, Friedlander A, Kojis B, Jeffrey CFG, Levitan D, Lundgren I, Miller J, Nemeth R, Pittman S, Quinn N, Rogers C, Smith T, Steneck B, Witman J

An underwater video surveillance system known as TrapCam was used to continuously record (15 ×c. 24 h periods) fish behaviour within and immediately surrounding an experimental fish trap situated in a coral reef ecosystem in the United States Virgin Islands

Gabby Renchen, Simon J Pittman, Marilyn Brandt

We describe a novel, un-baited midwater video system, PelagiCam, with motion-detection software (MotionMeerkat) for semiautomated monitoring of mobile marine fauna, was developed and tested on the UK’s largest offshore rope-cultured mussel farm in Lyme Bay, southwest England.

Emma Sheehan, Danielle Bridger, Sarah Nancollas & Simon J Pittman

This report contains a chemical and biological characterization of sediments from the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The baseline information contained in this report on chemical contaminants, toxicity and benthic infaunal community composition can be used to assess current conditions, as well as the efficacy of future restoration activities.

Anthony S. Pait, S. Ian Hartwell, Andrew L. Mason, Robert A. Warner, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Anne-Marie Hoffman, Dennis A. Apeti, Frank Galdo, Simon J. Pittman

Samples of coral and conch were collected from five previously identified strata in STEER and analyzed for more than 150 chemical contaminants including heavy metals (e.g. cadmium, copper, mercury and zinc) and organic contaminants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides).

Dennis A. Apeti, Andrew L. Mason, S. Ian Hartwell, Anthony S. Pait, Laurie Bauer, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Anne-Marie Hoffman, Frank Galdo, Simon J. Pittman

This technical report describes the trap fishery of the US Virgin Islands and applies autonomous underwater vehicles to search and detect derelict traps on the seafloor.  The report also includes the results of a long term underwater monitoring of the colonization of traps by marine life and a study of fish behavior, harm and mortality 'ghostfishing' due to derelict traps.

Randall D Clark, Simon J Pittman, Tim Battista, Chris Caldow

Using an experimental approach, 12 unbaited traps were deployed at nearshore and offshore locations in the US Virgin Islands to simulate derelict traps. Frequent underwater visual surveys of fish inside and surrounding traps were conducted to quantify fish assemblage composition, body size, fish behavior, condition, and mortality over 6 mo.

Gabrielle F Renchen, Simon J Pittman, Randy Clark, Chris Caldow, Sarah Gall, David Olsen, Ronald L Hill

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Marine Protected Areas & Marine Spatial Planning

Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands: Ch 6 Marine mammals

We compiled existing spatial data and created maps of the marine environment, benthic habitats, fishes, sea turtles, marine mammals and seabirds off the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI).This assessment is part of a larger process by BOEM and State of Hawai‘i to evaluate renewable energy proposals offshore of MHI.

Simon J Pittman; Arliss J. Winship, Matthew Poti, Brian P. Kinlan, Jeffery B. Leirness, Robin W. Baird, Jay Barlow, Elizabeth A. Becker, Karin A. Forney, Marie C. Hill, Peter I. Miller, Joseph Mobley, and Erin M. Oleson

Functional diversity (FD) metrics quantify the trait diversity in biological assemblages and act as a proxy for the diverse ecological functions performed in the community. Analyses of FD offer a potentially useful tool to identify functional changes in diverse, complex, and disturbed marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, yet this metric is rarely applied to evaluate community change. In the BIRNM, the trophic organization in fish assemblages did not return to the pre‐bleaching state even after

Patricia Rincon-Diaz, Simon J. Pittman, Ivan Arismendi Selina S. Heppell

The report provides: (1) an overview of the history of MPAs, types of MPAs and associated regulations, and a list of all MPAs in the USVI; (2) an ecological performance report for three intensively surveyed MPA units managed by NPS, including 20 biological metrics for fish and benthic habitat; (3) sightings of large-bodied fishes with moderate to high vulnerability to fishing; and (4) synthesis, summary and recommendations for management.

Simon J Pittman, Laurie Bauer, Sarah D Hile, Christopher FG Jeffrey, Erik Davenport, Chris Caldow

A large and regionally important mesophotic system, the Hind Bank Marine Conservation District (MCD), St. Thomas, USVI, was systematically surveyed. Data were used to construct a comprehensive benthic habitat map for the MCD, describe the abiotic and biotic components of the benthos among habitats, and investigate patterns of coral health among habitats.

Tyler B Smith, Jeremiah Blondeau, Richard S Nemeth, Simon J Pittman, Jacqui Calnan, Elizabeth Kadison, Jordan Gass

Coral Reef Ecosystems of Reserva Natural de La Parguera (Puerto Rico): Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Fish and Benthic Communities

The report provides a spatial and temporal characterization of the fish and benthic communities of southwestern Puerto Rico, primarily within the La Parguera Natural Reserve. The data and synthesis provides essential baseline biological data via: 1) a comprehensive spatial characterization of resources and habitat condition, and 2) an examination of increases and decreases in the abundance of fish species and components of the benthic habitat across the study area.

Simon J Pittman, Sarah D Hile, Christopher FG Jeffrey, Randy Clark, Kimberly Woody, Brook D Herlach, Chris Caldow, Mark E Monaco, Richard Appeldoorn

This technical report contains analyses of nine years of data (2001-2009) from underwater surveys of fish and benthic communities inside and outside the Virgin Islands National Park and the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument. We provide maps of species distributions and compare the benthic composition and reef fish assemblages inside and outside of manageed areas.

Alan M. Friedlander, Christopher F.G. Jeffrey, Sarah D. Hile, Simon J. Pittman, Mark E. Monaco, Chris Caldow

The project integrates field data on coral condition, living marine resources and benthic habitats through a multi-agency collaboration. The report provides a spatial and temporal characterization of the fish and benthic communities of Buck Island Reef National Monument and the surrounding seascapes of northeastern St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands.

Simon J Pittman, Sarah D Hile, Christopher FG Jeffrey, Chris Caldow, Matt S Kendall, Mark E Monaco, Zandy Hillis-Starr

The ecological characterization report provides essential information on the distribution of modeled and observed species needed to support the development of monitoring and scientific studies, the development of educational material, and support of other spatiallyexplicit management decisions.

Tim Battista, Randall Clark, Simon J Pittman

Chapter 5 Invasive mussels: In Ecological Assessment of Wisconsin-Lake Michigan

This chapter focuses on characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) mussels in Lake Michigan and highlights some of the known ecological consequences.

Simon J Pittman, Charles Menza, Ashley Elgin

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Neil Cousens & Simon J. Pittman


This document provides guidance to implementation of IFC Performance Standard 6 for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources. PS 6 and GN 6 provide a significant emphasis on the need to take forward landscape/ seascape approaches; and also to define
Ecologically Appropriate Areas of Analysis (EAAAs) for critical habitat assessment. We show how a hierarchy of assessment scales should take broad-scale (including transboundary) ecosystem connectivity into account as a fundamental driver in the definition of ecologically appropriate scales.

Ocean Cities & Marine Parks for Coastal Cities

We build here on the Ocean City concept with recognition of human cultural and well being connections to the ocean and examples of blue urban interventions that can progress a healthier relationship between coastal cities and the ocean for people and planet. 

Simon J. Pittman & Katherine L. Moseley

Marine Parks for Coastal Cities

Here we present the City Marine Park concept as an innovative blue urban social policy for enabling, empowering and deepening citizen relationship with the city seascape.

Simon J Pittman, Lynda Rodwell, Rebecca Shellock, Mike Williams, Martin Attrill, Jake Bedford, Kaja Curry, Steve Fletcher, Sarah Gall, Jason Lowther, Abigail McQuatters-Gollop, Katherine Moseley, Sian Rees

Invited presentation to Society & the Sea Conference, Greenwich, London, September 2018

Simon J Pittman & Marine & Coastal Policy Research Unit

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